Virtual Laboratories and Technical Simulators

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Virtual Laboratories

Virtual laboratories and technical simulators based on modern computer simulation tools for students of technical specialties and students of secondary schools.

Metal Cutting

A software simulator of a numerical control (CNC) lathe is an educational methodological development intended for basic familiarization of novice machCNC Simulatorine building specialists with the principles of programming parts turning operations using standard GM-code (Fanuc System A).

The basis of the three-dimensional simulation model is a lathe machine with a classical arrangement of units, equipped with a CNC system, an eight-position turret, a three-jaw chuck, a tailstock, a coolant supply system and other machinery. Material processing is performed on two axes in the horizontal plane.

Field of application of the software product: educational process using computer technology: laboratory lessons of students in computer classes, distance learning, demonstration support of lecture material in the group of areas of training and specialties: «Metallurgy, Engineering and Material Processing».

CNC SimulatorThe functionality of the simulator: preparation of texts of control programs of turning operations in the format of a standard GM-code, checking control programs for syntax and technological errors, playing on the computer screen (or other computing device) three-dimensional graphic models of the main components of the lathe machine and metal-cutting tools to simulate the process of turning metal, the three-dimensional visualization of the process of forming parts during turning on the compiled control programs, visualization of toolpaths, implementation of interactive user interaction with the simulation model of technological equipment.

Type of target computing device and supported platform: IBM – compatible PC running Microsoft Windows, Apple Macintosh PC running MacOS, mobile devices based on Android and iOS operating systems. Additionally, program execution is possible in a web browser environment with support for HTML5 technology and hardware support for 3D graphics (WebGL technology).

Graphics software uses OpenGL 2.0 components. The graphical user interface of the program is implemented in English and Russian.

CNC SimulatorMulti-platform support allows you to use the software on various computing devices, including interactive whiteboards, smartphones, tablet and desktop computers, which, in turn, increases the flexibility and mobility of the educational process, corresponding to the modern level of education informatization.

The simulator can be delivered with installation on one workplace (the user license with issue of registration keys) and with installation on unlimited number of workplaces (the corporate license for the organization).

3D simulator of a classic screw-cutting lathe machine. The application simulates the performance of ordinary turning operations in an interactive mode. The capabilities of the simulation model include operations of external and facing turning, drilling and boring of holes, turning of grooves, cutting of external and internal threads. In the full version of the application, more than 70 cutting tools are available for work.

Field of application of the software product: educational process using computer technology: laboratory lessons of students in computer classes, distance learning, demonstration support of lecture material in the group of areas of training and specialties: «Metallurgy, Engineering and Material Processing».

Lathe Machine SimulatorLathe Machine Simulator

Software laboratory complex for the simulation of laboratory work on the main sections of the course of metal cutting technology for students of technical specialties. The program complex includes simulation labs:

1. DETERMINATION OF CUTTING FORCES WHEN TURNING ON THE LATHE

OBJECTIVE: Acquisition skills in determining cutting forces, processing experimental data and obtaining empirical dependencies of cutting forces on cutting conditions on a lathe.

SUMMARY: The laboratory work is carried out on the basis of the classical lathe with manual control of support. The performance of laboratory work is divided into several stages: calibration of a turning dynamometer; determination of cutting force versus cutting depth; determination of the dependence of the cutting force on the value of the working feed; determination of cutting force versus cutting speed.

Metal Cutting

2. DETERMINATION OF CUTTING TEMPERATURE WHEN TURNING ON THE LATHE

OBJECTIVE: The acquisition of skills to determine the average contact temperature of the cutting area during turning; processing experimental data and obtaining empirical dependences of cutting temperature on cutting conditions on a.

SUMMARY: The laboratory work is carried out on the basis of the classical lathe with manual control of support. The performance of laboratory work is divided into several stages: determination of cutting temperature from the depth of cutting; determination of dependence of cutting temperature on the value of the working feed; determination of cutting temperature veMetal Cutting rsus cutting speed.

3. DETERMINATION OF WEAR AND STEADFASTNESS OF THE CUTTERS WHEN TURNING ON THE LATHE

OBJECTIVE: The study the nature of wear of the lathe cutters; determining the allowable amount of wear using the criterion of optimal wear; obtaining the dependence of durability of cutters on cutting speed.

SUMMARY: The laboratory work is carried out on the basis of the classical lathe with manual control of support. The performance of laboratory work is divided into several stages: the definition of the tool wear dependence on the cutting time; definition of dependence «cutting speed – durability of the tool».

Metal Cutting

4. THE STUDY OF THE GEOMETRY OF THE WORKING PART OF THE TURNING CUTTERS

OBJECTIVE: The consolidation the theoretical knowledge of the purpose, application and design of turning tools of general purpose; the familiarization with the methods and means of measuring their geometric parameters.

SUMMARY: The 27 variants of the main turning cutters are investigated in the laboratory work. Measurements are made interactively using simple geometric constructions on the computer screen. The scale of the geometric model may changes. During operation, the user makes measurements of the main angles of the working part of the lathe cutters and determines the designation of each angle in the form of an interactive test.

Metal Cutting

5. LATHE CNC SIMULATOR (CONTROL SYSTEM)

OBJECTIVE: A visual demonstration and training in programming the processing of metal turning on a robotic technological complex based on turning machine with a control system (CNC code standard ISO-7bit).

SUMMARY: The simulator is equipped with the code editor of control programs, as well as the menu for selecting the parameters of the working tool and the workpiece. The simulator allows you to create and execute simple control programs for machining parts on a lathe using the international CNC code ISO-7bit.

Metal Cutting

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1. TENSILE TESTING OF MATERIALS

THEME: TENSION

OBJECTIVE: Determination of the mechanical characteristics of the material under tension.

SUMMARY: Tensile tests of material specimens are carried out for the purpose of experimental determination of mechanical characteristics: yield stress, tensile strength, true tensile strength, elongation and relative narrowing after rupture. In the tensile test, a specimen of a certain shape and size made of test material is firmly fixed by its ends (heads) in the grippers of the testing machine and subjected to continuous gradual deformation prior to failure. In this case, the relationship between the tensile load and the elongation of the calculated part of the specimen is recorded in the form of a tensile diagram of the specimen.

2. COMPRESSION TESTING OF MATERIALS

THEME: COMPRESSION

OBJECTIVE: Determination of the mechanical characteristics of the material during compression and visual study of the effect of lubrication at the ends of the specimen on the intensity of barrel shaping.

SUMMARY: The compression test of the material specimens is carried out for the purpose of experimental determination of the mechanical characteristics: the yield strength of low-carbon steel and the tensile strength of gray iron under compression. In the compression test, a specimen of the standard shape and dimensions made of test material is placed on the working surface of the testing machine, and subjected to continuous, smooth deformation to a specified value of deformation or to failure. The relationship between the compressive force and the shortening of the specimen height in the form of a specimen compression diagram is recorded.

3. TORSION TESTING OF MATERIALS

THEME: TORSION

OBJECTIVE: Experimental determination of the mechanical characteristics of the material during torsion.

SUMMARY: Torsion testing of material specimens is carried out for the purpose of experimental determination of mechanical characteristics with pure shear: shear modulus, yield point, tensile strength, and also evaluate the nature of failure (shear, separation). In the torsion test, the specimen made of test material is firmly fixed by the heads in the grippers of the testing machine and subjected to continuous gradual deformation prior to failure. When torsion testing, the following basic conditions must be observed: qualitative centering of the specimen in the grippers of the testing machine, smooth loading and unloading, and lack of longitudinal force.

4. DETERMINATION OF THE ELASTIC CONSTANTS OF ISOTROPIC MATERIALS

THEME: ELASTIC CONSTANTS

OBJECTIVE: Experimental determination of the elastic modulus of the first kind and Poisson’s ratio for steel.

SUMMARY: As a testing object, a rod of rectangular cross-section, fixed in the grippers of the testing machine and loaded with longitudinal force, is used. Two strain gage are glued on the specimen before the tests: one in the longitudinal direction, the other in the transverse one. During the test, the deformation meter is calibrated. As a result of loading the specimen, longitudinal and transverse deformations are measured, the values of which determine the modulus of elasticity and the Poisson’s ratio of the material under investigation.

5. DIRECT BENDING OF THE ROD

THEME: BENDING

OBJECTIVE: Experimental and theoretical determination of stresses and displacements in a beam of an I-section under direct bending. Experimental verification of the law of distribution of normal stresses under pure bending.

SUMMARY: The main element of the laboratory installation is: an I-sectional beam made of aluminum alloy, mounted on two supports. The beam is loaded through a yoke, which is also an elastic element of the force meter. The middle part of the beam (between the supports of the yoke) is in the conditions of pure bending. In the middle section of the beam, seven foil-type strain gauges are glued. The strain gages are installed in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the beam and allow the deformation to be measured at the corresponding points.

6. OBLIQUE BENDING OF THE ROD

THEME: BENDING

OBJECTIVE: Determination of stresses in a rod of a rectangular cross-section and complete displacement of the cross section during oblique bending. Comparison of experimental and calculation results.

SUMMARY: The main element of the laboratory installation is a cantilevered rod, loaded with a vertical force. The design of the support allows the rod to rotate relative to its longitudinal axis and secure it in the established position. The position of the rod is controlled by means of an angular scale applied to the movable part of the rod support. At the free end of the rod, a suspension is mounted on the cylindrical hinge, on which the weights are loaded when the rod is loaded. The design of the suspension allows you to apply force only in the vertical direction. In the course of experiment, deformations in the rod and displacement of the point of the rod are measured.

7. STUDY OF STRESSES AND DISPLACEMENTS IN A FLAT FRAME

THEME: STRESS THEORY

OBJECTIVE: Determination of stresses, displacements and support reactions in a statically determinate and statically indeterminate planar frame.

SUMMARY: The main element of the laboratory installation is a flat frame consisting of three rigidly fixed rods of rectangular cross-section. The frame is mounted on two hinged supports, which attach three bonds to the frame. The construction of one of the supports makes it possible to impose an additional horizontal bond, i.e. allows the transition to a statically indeterminate flat frame. During the experiment, the frame is loaded with weights. Deformations and deflections are measured in the horizontal part of the frame, as well as the movement of the movable frame support.

8. STUDY OF STRESSES IN A FLAT GREAT CURVATURE ROD

THEME: STRESS THEORY

OBJECTIVE: Analysis of stresses in the flat great curvature rod of eccentric tension.

SUMMARY: The main element of the laboratory installation is a flat great curvature rod of a rectangular cross-section. The rod is fixedly fixed to the baseplate of the laboratory stand. The rod is loaded by means of a screw having right and left threads. Rotating the screw in one or another direction carries out eccentric stretching or compression of the curved rod. The force created by the screw is determined by means of the indicator of the hour type and the calibration table. On the surface of the rod are glued foil strain gages, necessary for measuring deformations and determining the normal stresses in the rod.

9. STRESS STATE WITH JOINT BENDING AND TORSION OF A ROD

THEME: STRESS THEORY

OBJECTIVE: Comparison of the results of theoretical calculation and experimental study of the stressed state of points of a curved and twisted rod.

SUMMARY: The main element of the laboratory installation is a tubular rod, loaded with bending and twisting moments. In the cross-section of the rod three strain gauges are glued to measure deformation. Deformation is measured by means of an electronic deformation meter. For the calibration of the scale of the electronic deformation meter in the design of the installation, it is possible to mount a hinged support on the free edge of the rod, in this case the rod is loaded only by the torque.

10. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE RECIPROCITY THEOREM

THEME: DISPLACEMENTS IN ELASTIC SYSTEMS

OBJECTIVE: Experimental verification of the validity of the reciprocity theorem on the example of displacements in a flat frame under different loading conditions.

SUMMARY: The main element of the laboratory installation is a flat frame consisting of three rigidly connected rods of a rectangular cross-section. The frame is mounted on two hinged supports. The construction of one of the supports makes it possible to apply a load in the form of a concentrated moment to the frame. This is achieved by shifting the loads fixed on the screw while rotating it. The frame is loaded by weights. Measures the deflection in the horizontal part of the frame, as well as the movement of the movable frame support.

11. DETERMINATION OF THE CRITICAL LOAD FOR A FLEXIBLE COMPRESSED ROD

THEME: SUSTAINABILITY THEORY

OBJECTIVE: Experimental verification of the validity of the Euler formula for the critical force upon compression of a flexible rod.

SUMMARY: The main element of the laboratory installation is a rod of a rectangular cross-section. The rod is installed in the right and left supports, the design of which allows the hinged or rigid fastening of the rod ends in the plane of least rigidity. The right support is connected to a dynamometer using a calibrated hour indicator, the left one to a screw type loading device. In the middle section of the rod is installed a deflectometer (indicator of the watch type on the stand). To determine the force acting on the rod, you need to use the empirical dependence obtained when calibrating the dynamometer.

12. DETERMINATION OF IMPACT STRENGTH OF MATERIAL

THEME: DYNAMIC STRESS

OBJECTIVE: The acquisition of practical skills for testing and calculation of the parameters of the toughness of the material.

SUMMARY: For the test, a pendulum coper is used, the design of which provides a shock effect on the specimen and the measurement of the deflection angle of the pendulum after the impact, which allows to calculate the energy spent on deformation and destruction of the specimen. Energy is defined as the difference between the initial supply of potential energy of the pendulum and the energy remaining at the pendulum after the destruction of the specimen.